Owen Crozier, Alfred, attorney and writer published in 1915 the plan 'A Nation of Nations, the Way to Permanent Peace, a Supreme Constitution for the Government of Governments'.
DESCRIPTION OF PLANEdit
TITLE OF PLAN:
A Nation of Nations, the Way to Permanent Peace, a Supreme Constitution for the Government of Governments.
Stewart & Kidd Co., Cincinnati, Ohio.
FEDERAL: Some of its features modeled on Canadian, Australian Federal Constitutions.
NAME: Nation of Nations.
UNIVERSAL: Any civilized nation with a population of two million or more. Nations not participating in proceedings settling World War and establishing Nation of Nations must apply for membership, but are to be accepted on equal terms.
ORGANS OF GOVERNMENT:
Bicameral: Supreme Senate; Supreme Council. Supreme Senate: Seven-year term; candidate must have been a Cabinet Minister or President of his nation; representatives apportioned as follows:
1. for every nation with population of 20 million or less. 3. for every nation with population between 20 and 50 million. 5. for every nation with population of 50 million or over.
Sessions: Every two years or as often as President and Council request.
Duties: To make international laws for conduct of nations; elect President and three Vice-Presidents; elect one-half of membership of Supreme Council.
Decisions: Two-thirds vote necessary to veto President's orders on law enforcement or concerning the armed forces; override President's veto; impeach President, Vice-Presidents, Council Members, Ministers, Justices; concur in declaration of war. Three-fourths vote necessary to exercise supreme veto of any executive, administrative, or judicial decision by any branch of the Nation of Nations; require performance of given act by any department or employee; impeach Senators.
Ministers of Departments may participate in deliberations of Supreme Senate, but vote only if they are also Senators. Senators are elected by nations they represent.
Supreme Council: Seven-year staggered terms; fourteen regular members; two chosen each year: one by President with consent of Council (also removable by President and two-thirds vote of Council); one chosen by Senate (also removable by two-thirds vote of Senate). Additional members: three Vice-Presidents -- ex-officio voting members; Ministers of Departments.
Duties: Appoints Ministers of Peace, Business, Justice, Laws, Finance, Human Welfare, Works and Waterways, Navy and War; fixes salaries of all officials; fills Presidential vacancies.
Exclusive authority: To make appropriations, incur liabilities, borrow money, issue currency, decide legal tender, issue and regulate credit, adopt sound banking and international exchange systems, negotiate treaties and agreements.
Decisions: Two-thirds vote necessary to remove Ministers; require President to perform any lawful act; share with President control of armed forces and law enforcement; override President's veto; ratify treaties.
Subject to veto by President and amendment or repeal by two-thirds vote of Senate, Council issues Supreme Orders with effect of, and Administrative Orders without effect of general law.
Supreme President and three Vice-Presidents: Elected by Supreme Senate for seven-year terms. Duties: Commander-in-chief of army and navy (subject to two-thirds veto of Council and Senate); appoints all officials with advice and consent of Supreme Council and may dismiss them without cause (except Supreme Justices) with consent of Supreme Council; declares war with two-thirds of Supreme Senate concurring.
General Supreme Court: Fifteen Supreme Justices (not more than three from any one nation) appointed for life by President with consent of Supreme Council; removable without stated cause by twothirds Senate vote, or by President if Council and majority of Senate approve. Jurisdiction: Over questions involving the Constitution, international laws, treaties, or acts of the Nation of Nations. May act, on request, as final appeal from Supreme Courts of member nations, to compose differences between countries voluntarily submitting to a decision.
Powers: May create subordinate courts.
TRANSFERS OF JURISDICTION FROM MEMBER NATIONS TO THE NATION OF NATIONS:
Assumes authority over all member nations.
Apportions taxes between nations on basis of representation in Supreme Senate.
Exercises exclusive jurisdiction over all seas and waters more than three miles outside exterior boundaries or possessions of all organized sovereign nations.
Exercises exclusive control over all lands not yet owned.
Regulates armaments and redistributes them.Requires surrender to Nation of Nations by gift, grant, or lease onehalf of naval and auxiliary vessels and one-half of every class of armament of each member nation.Accepts voluntary enlistment of citizens of member nations for Nation of Nations armed forces.Has right of investigation within member nations to safeguard proper performance of obligations to Nation of Nations.NATIONS RETAIN: Exclusive jurisdiction of all matters within their own territory and possessions as long as legal rights of other nations and citizens are not involved.Regulation of imports if applied equally to all other member nations.
Control over domestic, social, industrial, financial, commercial, revenue, and business affairs.
METHODS OF ENFORCEMENT:
Toward Member Nations: May be suspended, expelled, or otherwise dealt with when:
1. guilty of one year's default of police power tax lawfully levied against it; 2. neglects or refuses to be represented for two years; 3. neglects or refuses to comply with Constitution, orders and laws of Nation of Nations; and 4. threatens or engages in armed conflict with another nation without approval of Nation of
Nations, unless it is defending itself against attack. Nation of Nations obliged to assist member nations wrongfully attacked and to organize assistance of other member nations, without power, however, to compel their assistance.
United States initiative to bring about a suspension of hostilities followed by a peace agreement providing for the creation of a Government of Governments in which every nation will be equally represented. If European nations refuse to join, an American Nation of Nations should be created.
PREREQUISITES TO PEACE:
United States must keep out of the war whatever the cost or provocation in order to maintain civilization's one great remaining balance, and organize a world conference of congress to settle the issues of the war.
LIQUIDATION OF THE WAR:
Temporary international administration to restore order in nations where civil government has ceased to exist.
International administration of backward areas; of areas not yet owned by any nation; exclusive jurisdiction of seas and waters three miles outside of national boundaries.
- Searchlight on Peace Plans: Choose Your Road to World Government, by Georgia Lloyd, Edith Wynner; E.P. Dutton and Company, Inc., 1944